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Where can I get Test Series and Practice Sets on Muslim Law (The Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act, 1937)

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What to Study in Muslim Law for Judiciary Exams (The Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act, 1937)

A person can be a muslim by birth or by conversion.​​ According to the Shariat, even if one of the parents is a​​ Muslim, the child will be​​ Muslim. Under​​ Hindu​​ Law if one of the parents is a​​ Hindu​​ and the child is brought up as a​​ Hindu, the child will be​​ Hindu. The rule of​​ Muslim​​ law is subject to this rule of​​ Hindu​​ law.

SOURCES OF​​ MUSLIM​​ LAW

Primary sources:​​ According to Mulla, there are four formal primary sources also known as ‘shariah sources’ namely-

  • Quran: the quran is the first source of​​ Muslim​​ law in point of time and importance. Quran is considered as divine origin; it is the first source of​​ Muslim​​ law and it is unchangeable and authoritative.​​ 

  • Ahadis: these are the traditions of prophets.​​ 

  • Ijma: these are the unanimous decisions of the jurists.​​ 

  • Qiyas: if there was any problem before the society on which the former three texts were silent then a method of comparing the problem with a similar problem of which solution was given in the texts was adopted to get the law.

Secondary sources:​​ in the absence of primary sources, the law can be obtained from the following sources:

  • Urf (custom)

  • Judicial decisions

  • Legislations

  • Justice, equity and good conscience: under​​ Muslim​​ law principles of justice, equity and good conscience can also be regarded as one of the sources.

SCHOOLS OF​​ MUSLIM​​ LAW

There are four major schools of Sunnis:

  • Hanafi​​ School: this school is named after Abu Hanifa and governs a vast majority of​​ Muslims all over India.​​ 

  • Maliki School: this school was established by Malik-ibn-Anas​​ of Medina.​​ 

  • Shafei School: this school was founded by Ash Shafei and is found in most part of Southern India

  • Hanbali School: it was established by Ibn Hanbal. He rigidly adhered to traditions of Prophet and neglected Ijma and Qiyas.

There are three major schools of Shias:

  • Imamia School: this school is also known as Ithna Asharia School.​​ 

  • Ismailia School:​​ they constitute the smallest minority group of​​ Muslims and they considered Ismail as seventh Imam.

  • Zyadis School: it was founded by Zyad ​​ and this school incorporates some of the Sunni principles as well

MARRIAGE (NIKAH)

In​​ Muslim​​ law, marriage is defined to be a contract which has for its object the procreation and legalizing of children. It is a civil contract for the purposes of legalisation of intercourse, procreation of children and regulation of social life in the interest of society by creating the rights and duties between the parties.

Essentials of Muslim marriage-

  • ​​ Both the parties should be​​ Muslim, of sound mind and must have attained the age of puberty.

  • There should be an offer (ijab) made by one of the party and acceptance (qubul) of such proposal by the other party with the consent of the parties leading into the formation of contract (aqd).

  • Offer and acceptance must be in the presence of two witnesses; who are of sound mind and major.​​ 

  • The proposal and acceptance must both be in one and same meeting.

  • If the parties are major, they must make offer and acceptance themselves, but for minors and lunatics guardians can perform this function.

Capacity to marry-​​ the following persons have the capacity to contract a nikah:

  • Any person who is of sound mind and has attained the age of puberty.​​ 

  • A person who is not within the prohibited degrees of relationship with the other party.

  • In case of lunatics or who have not attained the age of puberty the marriage can be legally contracted by their legal guardians. Age of puberty is the age at which the person is supposed to attain sexual competency which is generally presumed to be 15 years of age.​​ 

 

Classification of marriages:​​ on the basis of validity marriage can be classified into three kinds- valid (sahih), void (batil) and irregular (fasid).

  • Valid marriage-​​ A marriage which conforms all the following legal requirements shall be a valid marriage:

  • There must have been a proposal by one party and acceptance by the other.

  • The consent of the parties must be free.​​ 

  • Proposal and acceptance must have taken place at same time and in the same meeting in the presence of two male or one male and 2 female witness who are major and of sound mind.

  • The parties must have capacity to contract marriage i.e. they should be of sound mind, major and capable to give free consent. If they are minor or lunatic, consent can be obtained from their legal guardians.

  • The parties to marriage should not be in degrees of prohibited relationships to each other i.e. they should not be related to each other through consanguinity, affinity or fosterage.​​ 

  • Void marriage: A marriage contracted by parties suffering from absolute incapacity i.e. prohibition on the ground of consanguinity,​​ fosterage and affinity is void an initio under all schools of​​ Muslim​​ law.​​ The children of such marriages are considered as legitimate.

  • Consanguinity (Relation by blood)

A​​ Muslim​​ is prohibited from marrying his/her following blood relations:

  • One’s own ascendant or descendant, how high so ever.

  • Descendants of one’s father or mother, how low so ever.

  • Brothers or sisters of one’s ascendants, how high so ever.

Under​​ Muslim​​ law there is no prohibition on marriage of two cousins.

  • Affinity (Relation by marriage)

Affinity means nearness. It is created through marriage. On this basis a​​ Muslim​​ cannot marry the following relationships:

  • Ascendant or descendant of one’s wife or husband.

  • Wife or husband of one’s ascendant or descendant.

A man can marry his wife’s daughter from another man if the marriage between him and his wife has not consummated.

  • Fosterage (Relation by milk)

Where a child under the age of two years has sucked the milk of any woman other than his birth mother then such a woman is called the ‘foster mother’ of that child.

Whoever is prohibited by consanguinity or affinity is prohibited by reason of fosterage. Eg. a​​ Muslim​​ male cannot marry his foster mother, foster mother’s daughter, foster sister etc.​​ 

However under Sunni law a male can marry with sister’s foster mother, foster sister’s mother, foster son’s sister or foster brother’s sister

  • Polyandry

A​​ Muslim​​ woman who has a husband alive and has not been divorced by him cannot marry another man.

  • Irregular marriage: if there is any illegality in the marriage which may be removed, the marriage is irregular. As soon as that illegality is removed such marriage becomes perfectly valid. Presence of relative prohibitions is deemed to be unjust, thus an irregular marriage can become a valid marriage on the volition of the person. Following are the relative bars:

  • Unlawful conjunction

A man may not have at the same time two wives who are so related to each other by consanguinity, affinity or fosterage i.e. if either of them had been a male, they could not have inter married.​​ 

  • Marriage with the fifth wife

Muslim​​ law permits a limited polygamy of four wives. A​​ Muslim​​ male can have only four​​ wives;​​ he can marry a fifth wife only after divorcing one of the four.

  • Marriage without witnesses

  • Marriage of a​​ Muslim​​ major without his/her consent.

  • Marriage with non​​ Muslim

A Sunni male can validly marry a​​ kitabia​​ (Jew or Christian)​​ but not to an idol worshipper (Hindu) or fire worshipper. A Sunni female cannot marry a non​​ Muslim.

  • Marriage during iddat

Iddat is the period of seclusion that a woman undergoes after the divorce or death of her husband. During this period the woman is required to lead a pure life and cannot remarry until the completion of the​​ period. When a valid marriage is dissolved by divorce and consummation has taken place, then duration of iddat is three menstruation​​ courses or​​ three lunar months.​​ When the marriage is dissolved by the death of the husband, then​​ the duration of iddat period is 4 months 10 days.​​ If the woman is pregnant at the time of divorce​​ or death​​ then the iddat period continues till the delivery of the child or abortion. If the marriage has not been consummated then the wife need not observe the iddat period.

DOWER​​ (mahr)

Dower is a sum of money promised by husband to be paid to the wife in the consideration of marriage and even where no dower is expressly fixed or mentioned at the time of marriage the law confers the right of dower upon the wife. A​​ Muslim​​ couple may fix any amount of dower. The Hanafis fix the minimum amount at 10 dirhams and the Malikis at 3 dirhams. Under Shia law no minimum dower has been prescribed but under it the proper or customary should not exceed 500 dirhams.

The dower may be classified into:

  • Specified dower (mahr-i-musamma)

  • Prompt dower (marjjal):​​ it is payable immediately on the marriage taking place and​​ it must be paid on demand, unless the delay is agreed.

  • Deferred dower (muwajjal):​​ it is payable on dissolution of marriage either by death or divorce. The wife is not entitled to payment of deferred dower unless otherwise stipulated.

  • Proper or customary dower (mahar-i-nisi)

Important Points in Muslim Law (The Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act, 1937)

Introduction

The concept of marriage and divorce under Muslim law is developed through ancient perspectives and from a historical point of view among Muslim Law. The source of development of these are personal laws, which happen to be Quran (holy book of Muslim), Sunna (precedent), Ijma (consensus) and Kiyas (analogical deductions), among these four sources Quran is the primary source. It is considered to be so fundamental and sacred in the Muslim world that it is immutable according to Muslims.

Marriage is considered a civil contract under Muslim law, unlike sacrament under Hindu law. It is necessary for the establishment of a family, which is considered a fundamental entity of society. Under Muslim Law, marriage is only the halal or legal way for the intimate relationship between men and women and legitimacy of children. It is a social necessity that regulates social life through the creation of certain rights and duties which both the partners are required to fulfil.

In Pre-Islamic Arabia condition of women was very pitiable, they were seen as objects, polygamy, buying and selling of women, temporary marriage for the fulfilment of lust, marrying two real sisters simultaneously, freely divorcing wife etc. was prevalent. In short, people were unaccountable towards women.

It was only after the emergence of laws/rules made by Prophet Muhammad, in Muslim society status of women became better, but certain patriarchal notions are still prevalent such as polygamy and the notion that men are considered superior to women due to their masculinity and intellectual superiority etc. These thoughts, customs, precedents, Ijtihad (independent individual reasoning based on justice, equity and good conscience) and legislations have shaped the modern Muslim Law of marriage and divorce.

Due to the division of Muslims into various sects and different schools, there are more than one type/form of marriage accepted among Muslims. There are different types of marriages such as Muta marriage, Sahih marriage, Batil marriage.

Before entering into the union of marriage there are certain essential conditions that must be fulfilled by both the prospective husband and the prospective wife, such as the age of majority, consent of the parties, Mehr etc. As Muslim marriage is a civil contract by nature, there must be an offer from one party and acceptance from another party. Divorce under Muslim law is divided into different categories such as divorce my husband (Talaq-ul-Sunnat, Talaq-ul-Biddat, Ila, Zihar), divorce by wife (Talaq-e-Tafweez), divorce by mutual consent (khula, mubarat) and divorce by judicial decree under The Muslim Dissolution of Marriage Act, 1939 (lian, fask).

Marriage under Muslim Law

Muslims are broadly divided into two major sects Shias and Sunnis and there are four schools of thought under Muslim law, Hanafi, Hamabil, Maliki, and Shafi. Out of these four, the Hanafi school is dominant in India. Due to these different sects and schools of thought, there are different types of marriages and divorce that are accepted in Muslim society. Different types of marriages are Muta marriage, Sahih (valid) marriage, Batil (void) marriage, Fasid (irregular) marriage.

According to Ameer Ali (political and social reformer and scholar of Islam), marriage is necessary for the protection of society. It is an organisation that protects society from foulness and unchastity. According to Abdur Rahim(Indian jurist), marriage is an institution that partakes in both the nature of devotional arts (ibadat) and dealing among men (Mumlat). Thus,  under Muslim law marriage is a solemn pact that gives validity to the intimate relationships between men and women and legitimises children born out of that wedlock.

Nature of marriage

The nature of marriage under Muslim law is the same as a civil contract. It is entered into by both the parties by their free volition. In its formation it also takes the form of contract as there is offer and acceptance between the parties, giving same right to husband and wife. But during the dissolution of marriage, the husband is given more rights than the wife as they are considered superior to women due to the patriarchal notion that men are physically and intellectually superior to women. Though generally marriage under Muslim law is considered a civil contract, some people also treat it as a religious sacrament.

In the case of Abdul Kadir vs Salima, it was observed that the character of Muslim marriage is similar to that of a civil contract, as like civil contract marriage under Muslim law requires of offer (Ijab) from one side and acceptance (Qubul) from another side, which must be out of the free will, without any coercion, undue influence and fraud on the part of both the parties. In case of both the parties being minor, they have the right to either set aside or follow the terms of marriage.

When they become major, as it is in the case of a contract, unless and until it is opposed to public policy it is right of the parties to enter into antenuptial/prenuptial agreement, though it is not socially acceptable there is also a provision for breach of contract of marriage. However, there is a constant debate regarding the nature of marriage, some consider it as purely a civil contract while others consider it as a religious sacrament. Chief Justice Sir Shah Suleman, in the case of Anis Begum vs Muhammad Istafa, gave a more balanced view about this unending debate by stating that marriage under Muslim law is both civil contract and religious sacrament.

Essentials of Muslim marriage

Capacity to marry 

According to the Koran, a person who is to be married must be of sound mind, attained the age of puberty. In Muslim society age of puberty for a man is considered to be 15 years. The Indian Majority Act 1875 does not apply to Muslims in case of marriage, dower or divorce, but The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act 2006 is secular and it is applicable to all irrespective of religion, thus according to it the age of majority for a girl is 18 years and for a boy is 21 years.

Offer and acceptance

There is an offer (Ijab) from one party and acceptance (qubul) from the other party, the acceptance is subsequent to the terms of the contract and both the offer and the acceptance must happen at one time on the same occasion. If an offer is made at a particular time and it is accepted after some days/months/years, it is not accepted.

Consent of the parties

Both the parties must consent to the terms of the contract in the same sense without any fraud, undue influence, coercion or ill-will.

Mehr

It is a consideration payable to the wife during Muslim marriage, as a mark of respect to her from her husband. Mehr is one of the fundamental criteria for the legitimacy of Muslim marriage.

No legal impediment

For the validity of marriage, there should not be any legal hindrance, some of which are the following:

Absolute impediment

It renders marriage null and void.

Consanguinity 

Prohibition to marry some of the blood relations, such as a male Muslim cannot marry his mother, grandmother, daughter, granddaughter, niece, aunt or great-aunt (mother and father side both) and sisters full, consanguine or uterine.

Affinity

It prevents a man from marrying all relations of the woman with whom he married, such as once wife’s mother, grandmother, grandmother’s mother, etc.

Fosterage

It prevents relationships with relations of a foster mother, such as foster grandmother, foster mother’s daughter etc.

Relative impediments

These conditions render the marriage irregular; if irregularities are removed then the marriage becomes valid.

Unlawful conjugation

A Muslim male cannot marry women who are related to each other by consanguinity, affinity or fosterage, had they been the opposite gender it would have been unlawful marriage. If the first wife dies, marriage with her ends, then he can marry another. In Sunni Law, unlawful conjugation is merely irregular but under Sharia Law it is void.

Marriage with women undergoing Idda/Iddat

Idda/Iddat is a period observed by women after the death of her husband or divorce, to remove the confusion of paternity in case she is pregnant. The time of observance of Idda/Iddat depends on the manner in which marriage is dissolved. If the marriage is dissolved by divorce a menstruating woman is required to observe Idda/Iddat for a period of three menstruation courses, while a non-menstruating woman is required to observe Idda/Iddat for a period of three lunar months.

If a woman is pregnant then the period of Idda/Iddat continues till the delivery of the baby. In case of dissolution of marriage due to the husband’s death, a woman is required to observe Idda/Iddat for four lunar months and ten days. If a woman is pregnant at the time of her husband’s death then the period of Idda/Iddat is either four lunar months and ten days or until delivery, whichever is earlier. Under Shia Law marrying a woman during the period of Idda/Iddat is void.

Marriage in violation of the doctrine of equality

It is a belief in Muslim society that a man should marry a woman of equal rank, for example, a high ranked marry a high-rank woman. There are several conditions of equality under different sects and schools of Muslim law. Though marriage is not invalid on account of violation of the doctrine of equality, it is merely an irregular marriage.

Polygamy

Polygamy is allowed in Muslim law, but it is restricted to marrying four wives. Thus, one marries a fifth woman while already having four wives, the marriage will be considered irregular and not void.

Marriage with Non-Muslim

Muslim women cannot marry non-Muslim (kitabiya), but under Sunni law, a Muslim man is allowed to marry a Christian or Jew. However, under Shia Law marriage with a non-Muslim is void.

 

Marriage with Non-Muslim

Shia Law

Sunni Law

Woman

Not valid

Void

Irregular

Man

Not valid

Void

Irregular

Types of marriages

The validity of a marriage depends on the conclusion of the marriage contract, no writing is necessary while making a contract, it can be oral or written. The different types of marriages are following:

Temporary marriage (Muta marriage)

This type of marriage is practised among Ithna Ashari of the Shia sect, it is also known as ‘pleasure marriage’, while all other Muslim sects discard this type of marriage. Ithna male can marry any number of wives, who must be Muslim, Jewish or a fire worshipper but Ithna female is restricted to marry only Muslims. At the time of entering into the contract, all the terms of the marriage must be mentioned and any term entered afterwards is not valid.

Characteristics of muta marriage

  • There must be a contract.
  • There must be an offer and acceptance between the parties.
  • Dower must be specified.
  • Duration of marriage must be specified, hours/days/weeks/months/years, if the term is unspecified union is stipulated to be permanent.
  • Parties do not have the right to mutual inheritance.
  • Unless specified in the marriage contract, the wife is not liable for maintenance.
  • If marriage is consummated, the wife is entitled to full dower, if it is not consummated, she is entitled to half dower.
  • In case of the consummation of marriage, the wife is required to observe Idda/Iddat.
  • Even without the permission of the wife, the husband has the right to refuse procreation.
  • Offsprings have the right to inherit the property of both the parents and hence, have the status of legitimate children.
  • Unless extended, Muta marriage ends with the expiry of the term of marriage mentioned in the contract.

Permanent marriages

The different aspects of permanent marriages are following:

Sahih (valid) marriage

A marriage between two parties, where all the necessary legal formalities are fulfilled is called Sahih (valid) marriage. This type of marriage is accepted by both Shia and Sunni sects.

Characteristics of Sahih (valid) marriage

  • The status of husband and wife is recorded at the parties.
  • There exists a mutual right of inheritance between the parties.
  • Due to any reason such as death, divorce etc., if marriage is dissolved, then the husband is barred from marrying her wife’s sister.
  • It confers upon children borne out of this wedlock, a legitimate status.
  • In addition to the above-mentioned terms and conditions, any terms and obligations can be added to the marriage contract, which must not be opposed to public policy in Muslim society.

Batil (void) marriage

When there is a violation of absolute or relative impediments while performing the marriage, it is still called Batil (void) marriage. Though it is still called marriage, as both the parties have performed the necessary formalities of marriage. This type of marriage is void because the parties totally lack the capacity to marry each other, and there are not any legal provisions described in Muslim Law through which their marriage could become valid. This type of marriage is recognised in both Shia and Sunni sects.

Characteristics of Batil (void) marriage

  • It is not a marriage as no legal rights and obligations occur from it.
  • The status of husband and wife is not confirmed by the parties.
  • Children born out of such marriage are illegitimate.
  • Both the parties are free to enter into another marriage without committing the offence of polygamy and bigamy.

Fasid (irregular) marriage

Marriage performed in violation of relative impediment is called Fasid (irregular) marriage. It is neither a valid nor void marriage, but it can be validated by removing the relative impediment (irregularity). This type of marriage is also accepted by both the Shia and Sunni sects, except the Itna Asari school of the Shia sect.

Characteristics of Fasid (irregular) marriage

  • Until and unless terminated by law it continues to exist.
  • Both wife and children and liable to be maintained.
  • The marriage becomes effective after confirmation.
  • Both the husband and the wife have the right to terminate the marriage at any time.
  • Wife is required to observe Idda/Iddat, in the course of death of husband or divorce with hum.
  • Children born out of this wedlock are fully legitimate and have the right of inheritance.
  • Husband and wife do not have the right of mutual inheritance.

Divorce under Muslim Law

The only essential condition for divorce under Muslim Law is marriage between two parties. There are different forms and ways through which marriage can be dissolved under Muslim Law, which are following:

Divorce by husband

There are four ways a husband can give divorce.

Talaq-ul-Sunnat

This form of divorce is based on Muslim Personal Laws. It is further sub-divided into the following categories:

Ahsan

  • Husband has to make an announcement of divorce in a single sentence when the wife is free from the menstrual cycle.
  • After divorce women have to observe Iddat for a certain period of time, during which the husband cannot indulge in any form of sexual intercourse, if he indulges then revocation of talaq becomes impliedly revocable, otherwise, it becomes irrevocable.
  • This type of talaq can be pronounced even when the wife is undergoing menstruation, but for that marriage must not be consummated between the parties.
  • It is the most approved form of talaq.

Hasan

  • It is a less approved form of Talaq Ahasan.
  • There is a provision for revocation of divorce.
  • The word talaq is to be pronounced three times simultaneously.
  • Three announcements should be made in the three states of purity if the wife has not crossed the age of menstruation.
  • If the wife has crossed the age of menstruation, pronouncement must be made at the 30 days interval between the successive pronouncements.
  • During the period of three pronouncements, no sexual intercourse should take place, if it happens divorce is revoked.
  • After completion of the iddat period, this type of divorce becomes irrevocable.

Talaq-ul-Biddat

  • it is this disapproved/sinful form of divorce.
  • It is also known as triple talaq, after pronouncing talaq three times it becomes irrevocable immediately.
  • This form of divorce is only recognised under Sunni Law and not by Shias and Malikis.
  • Parties can remarry only after performing nikah halala by the female partner, under which she has to marry another man and then get divorced from him.
  • This type of divorce is unconstitutional in India, through the judgement of the Supreme Court in the case of Shayara Bano vs Union of India and Others.

Ila

  • It is a form of divorce under which the husband has the power to pronounce that he would not indulge in sexual intercourse with his wife.
  • Subsequent to this pronouncement, the wife is required to observe iddat.
  • If the husband cohabits with the wife during this period, then the Ila is revoked.
  • Once the period of iddat is over, divorce becomes irrevocable.
  • This type of divorce is not practised in India.

Zihar

  • It is also constructive divorce like Ila.
  • In this form of divorce, the husband compares his wife with a woman who comes under a degree of prohibited relationship, such as his mother, sister etc, and pronounces that she is like his mother or sister.
  • For doing this the husband must be of sound mind and above the age of eighteen years.
  • The wife has the right to seek judicial remedies such as restitution of conjugal rights, cohabitation etc., but cannot seek judicial divorce.
  • Husband can revoke such divorce by observing two months fast, feeding sixty people and freeing a slave.
  • This type of divorce is no longer in practice.

Divorce by wife

Talaq-e-Tafweez

  • It is also known as delegated divorce.
  • The husband has the power to delegate such power to the wife, he must be of sound mind and above 18 years of age.
  • This type of talaq is also called an agreement, which may be entered between the parties before or after marriage.
  • If the terms of an agreement are not fulfilled, the wife can ask for a divorce.
  • It is the only way through which a woman can ask for a divorce.
  • The right of the husband to divorce his wife remains intact, it does not deprive the husband of his right to pronounce the divorce.

Divorce by mutual consent

Khula

  • It means ‘laying down’, where the husband lays down the authority over his wife.
  • This is done through mutual consent between husband and wife, where the wife pays the consideration from her property to the husband, for her release.
  • Wife releases Mehr and other rights for the benefit of her husband.
  • Thus, divorce is purchased from husband by wife.
  • There is an offer from the wife, which is accepted by the husband.
  • Women are required to observe iddat after Khula.

Mubarat

  • It means ‘release’, it releases/discharges parties from marital rights.
  • Divorce is with mutual consent among parties to become free from one another.
  • Its formalities are the same as Khula, where there is an offer from one party and acceptance from another. 
  • Women are required to observe Iddat.

Divorce by judicial decree under Muslim Dissolution of Marriage Act, 1939

Lian

  • This type of divorce occurs when a wife is falsely charged with adultery by her husband.
  • She can move to court to file a regular suit for dissolution of marriage, under the Muslim Dissolution of Marriage Act, 1939.
  • The ground of divorce must be a false charge of adultery on the wife, his husband.
  • The husband imposing charge must be sane and above 18 years of age.
  • Marriage is not dissolved until dissolution degrees are passed by the court, once it is passed divorce becomes irrevocable.
  • The husband can prevent divorce by the withdrawal of false assertion of adultery on the wife, before passing of the decree by the court.

Faskh

  • If husband and wife feel that they are not compatible together, they can file for divorce.
  • Section 2 of The Dissolution of Marriage Act, 1939, states grounds on the basis of which the wife may sue for divorce.
  • Whereabouts of husband not known for 4 years.
  • Husband has failed to maintain wife for two years.
  • Husband is sentenced for imprisonment of 7 years or more.
  • Husband has failed to perform marital obligations for three years, without any reasonable cause.
  • The husband is impotent.
  • Husband is suffering from insanity (for two years), leprosy or virulent venereal disease.
  • Wife being married before 15 years, rejects the validity of marriage after attaining the age of 18 years, provided marriage must not be consummated.
  • Husband treats her with cruelty, such as imposing physical assault. making defamatory statements that affect her reputation etc.

Rights conferred by personal laws based on religion is not absolute. For instance, the two most popular and important judgments of the Supreme Court in this regard are discussed hereinafter, in the case of Mohd. Ahmed Khan vs Shah Bano, Shah Bano at the age of 62 was divorced by her husband Mohammed Ahmed Shah, and she along with her five children were disowned and tossed out from her marital home.

When she approached Madhya Pradesh High Court to restore her maintenance amount of rupees 200 which was halted by her husband, and to increase its amount to rupees 500, she was divorced by her husband through instant triple talaq or Talaq-ul-Biddat, who used it as a defence not to pay maintenance as she no longer was his wife. But the court granted maintenance to Shah Bano under Section 125 of CrPC on the grounds that she is unable to earn and maintain herself. Though it was against the provisions of Islamic law, Section 125 of CrPC override the personal law and gave effect to the judgement. 

Similarly, in the case of Shayara Bano vs Union of India, Shayara Bano married to Rizwan Ahmed, was a victim of domestic violence, while she was visiting her parents, Rizwan Ahmed sent her a divorce letter of Talaq-ul-Biddat declaring instant divorce. She filed a petition before the Supreme Court to declare triple talaq, nikah halala, and polygamy to be unconstitutional. Although the court took into account only the plea of triple talaq declaring it to be unconstitutional and it also held that until the government formulates a law regarding instant triple talaq, there would be an injunction against the pronouncement of triple talaq by husbands on their wives. 

Talaq-ul-Biddat or triple talaq is unconstitutional as it violates Article 14 of the Constitution in two ways; firstly, it discriminates Muslim women from Muslim men on the basis of gender, as only Muslim men have the right to declare triple talaq, and secondly, it is discrimination on the basis of religion, women of no other religion are subject to cruelty and unjust behaviour of triple talaq except Muslim women.

Talaq-ul-Biddat also violates Article 21 of the Constitution on the grounds of the right to live with human dignity, Muslim women are subject to derogatory and cruel behaviour of the Talaq-ul-Biddat, which reduces their presence to mere unwanted beings in the eyes of their husband and society. A divorce that is arbitrary, without justified reasoning and a reconciliatory process is never allowed by the Koran. Thus, personal laws of Muslims are given prominence unless and until they are against the right of women to live a dignified life or are unconstitutional.

Changes brought by the Muslim Women (Protection Of Rights On Marriage) Act, 2019

The Muslim Women (Protection Of Rights On Marriage) Act, 2019 brought the following changes:

  • Section 3- Pronunciation of triple talaq on wife by husband in any manner (including electronic), by words either spoken or written, is void or illegal.
  • Section 4- Any person who pronounces talaq to his wife in a manner prescribed in section 3, shall be subject to imprisonment extendable to 3 years or shall be liable to a fine.
  • Section 5- Muslim women who are being divorced can seek allowance from their husband to maintain themselves and children dependent on them.
  • Section 6- Muslim women divorced by husband are entitled to seek custody of their minor child.
  • Section 7- Magistrate can grant bail to the accused after hearing both the parties, if he feels that reasonable ground exists for granting bail. The offence is compoundable and there is also an option of compromise at the instance of a married Muslim wife, which will drop the charges on the basis of fulfilment of certain terms and conditions.

Need for Uniform Civil Code (UCC)

Implementation of the Uniform Civil Code is the need of the hour. Article 44 of the Indian Constitution talks about the creation of the Uniform Civil Code for all the citizens of India. The creation and implementation of UCC will bring drastic changes in the Muslim personal laws, this is the reason it is being opposed by the Muslims. It will lead to the permanent abolition of triple talaq, all the marriages will be dissolved through Court proceedings.

The practice of polygamy will be abolished and monogamy will be the norm. It will also bring change in maintenance provisions; Muslim women will be able to claim maintenance for a lifetime. Civil contractual nature of marriage will be abolished. Registration of marriage will be compulsory practice, and implementation of UCC will also lead to a violation of the period of iddat. These changes are pro-women and are actively welcomed by Muslim women, as it will lead to the positive betterment of women and society as a whole.

But these changes are opposed by Muslims as a whole because they feel the imposition of UCC as an imposition of Hindu law over their personal laws, which is the wrong notion. Uniform Civil Code will be secular in nature containing essentials of all the diverse religions in India. Thus, Uniform Civil Code is necessary for strengthening national unity and integrity among citizens of India.

Conclusion

Under the Muslim Law, there are more than one form of ways through which marriage can be solemnized and divorce can be initiated for dissolution of marriage. To cater to the needs of changing circumstances along with Muslim personal laws certain legislations are brought by the Government of India such as the Muslim Dissolution of Marriage Act, 1939, the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Act, 2019 etc., to govern Muslim marriage and divorce. However, apart from these legislations and personal laws, there is a need for the Uniform Civil Code for creating single informed laws governing all the citizens of the nation to strengthen national unity and integrity.

Practice Sets for State Judicial Services & Other Law Exams

Judicial Services aspirants can practice unlimited on any of the following modules important for judicial services. In almost all state judicial services exams, these modules contain significant no of questions. We at tesTopper collected and prepared almost 300+ Module tests for judicial services aspirants.

Module Practice Sets
Constitution of India

Code of Civil Procedure, 1908

Transfer of Property Act, 1882

Indian Contract Act, 1872
Specific Relief Act, 1963
Limitation Act, 1963
MP Accommodation Control Act, 1961
MP Land Revenue Code, 1959
Indian Evidence Act, 1872
Indian Penal Code, 1861
Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973
Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881
Hindu Marriage Act
Muslim Law
Sale of Goods Act 1930
Special Relief Act 1963
Public International Law

 

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